Minggu, 29 Januari 2012

Teaching Vocabulary Using Picture

Seminar on Language Teaching
ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/ 2012
Lecturer :
Drs. Surono, M. Hum.
Dewi Putri Ayuningrum
J / E2

By :
Dewi Putri Ayuningrum
Learning is one of the activity of the students in the classroom together with the teacher inside. To make the athmosphere of the learning process became more fun and more atractive, a teacher always have the innovation, techniques, and methods to teach so that students are more excited in the learning process. For example in learning vocabulary using a media that is the picture, the students will be pleased to learn the foreign language using the pictures. In this paper describes some of the information related to learning vocabulary. The picture as media of learning vocabulary, techniques and principles in the use of picture as media, and how to choose the right picture as media in learning of the foreign language for children.
Keywords : learning, vocabulary, media, picture

English is the international language in the world. Most of countries in the world use English. English is foreign language in Indonesia, but it is very important for us. English is very important for Indonesian because they must be able to speak English. In many places in Indonesia, there are some characteristics to get the job. One of them is people must be able to speak English well. So, Indonesian must learn English start from early.
“Language learning (seperti waktu pelajar dan mahasiswa belajar bahasa asing seperti Inggris dan Arab) lebih bersifat formal dan waktunya terbatas (limited). Anak-anak tidak dapat seenaknya sendiri dalam belajar bahasa Inggris atau Arab. Akibatnya suasana belajar bahasa asing sering tegang atau tidak nyaman. Selain itu jam untuk belajar bahasa kedua/ asing sangat terbatas. Kesempatan (chance) siswa untuk berlatih berbahasa juga tidak besar. Faktor penghambat lain adalah memori anak sudah mulai menurun seiring dengan meningkatnya daya pikir mereka. Selain itu, motivasi belajar bahasa kedua/ asing sering lemah dan bersifat instrumental (low instrumental) karena anak berminat untuk mempelajari pelajaran lain atau ia mempunyai perhatian lain sebagaimana layaknya anak muda (misal bermain olah raga, mulai tertarik pada lawan jenis lainnya.)” (Subhan, 2003 : 22)

Based on the quotation above, language learning language learning is a process that must be taught to a child as early as possible. An early age will be faster on a students to master the language, or can easily to understand the language learning process, especially in foreign language. The early age or the golden age of the students should be utilized by as much as possible, because at this age a students’ brain will be easier to understand and grasp the language learning materials, especially foreign language​. Age, will gradually become older and the grasp or power of thought someone would also be decreased. Therefore, learning a language that is given to a child early on, when the grasp and power think they are still very high in many beneficial and will be easier to understand, control, and considering the material given in the learning process.
Nowadays, English is very popular in our environment. It has been taught from elementary school, primary school, or maybe play group. Teaching English for children in elementary school, primary school, or maybe in play group is not easy.
In teaching children we must have an ability to handle children. We must able to handle the children because in this age, they are sometimes difficult to be learn. In teaching English for children, there are many ways or methods. We as teachers must be able to get inovations and give motivation to the students in learning process. This way will make the student enjoy with English.
“Humanistic psychology has had an influence on language education in a number of respects. It provides a rationale for several of the mor prominent method such as Community Language Learning, the Silent Way and Suggestopedia (although it could be argued that as they are practised, some of these methods are anything but humane). It has also influenced curriculum theorising, particularly learner-oriented approaches to curriculum development. The influence of humanism on experiental learning is also traced by Kohonen in this collection who argues that : ‘ in experiential learning, immidiate personal experience is seen as the focal point for learning, giving’ life, txture, and subjective personal meaning to abstract concepts and at the same time providing a concrete, the implications and validity of ideas created during the language process.”(Nunan, 1992 : 1)

In language learning there are four skills, listening, writing, reading, and speaking. There are very important in language learning and the students must know and understand the skills. The students will become mastery the four skills if they has knowledge and skill in vocabulary. In the elementary school, there is teach about vocabulary. In this case, the student will get more vocabularies. For example, vocabulary about animals, colours, fruits, days, months, numbers, transportations, alphabets, parts of human body, and the others.
“Historically, vocabulary has had an uncertain place within the field of language teaching. In the days when audiolingualism held swam, vocabulary received limited attention. The focus was on inculcating grammar patterns. The belief was that once these patterns had been internalized, then vocabulary could simply be “plugged in” to the relevant slots in the grammar pattern. With communicate language teaching, all that changed. The emphasis then swam  firmly in favor of building up an extensive vocabulary as quickly as possible.” (Nunan, 2011 : chapter 8)

Teaching vocabulary is very important. It is very important because without vocabulary students can not speaking, writing, and can not understand the meaning of a sentences or can not understand what the people says. Vocabulary must be taught start from elementary school. In this age, the student can accept the materials of vocabulary well.
“Children should not be expected to learn things in a second language that they have not yet learned to do in their first language. In first language learning, the childs vocabulary repertoire “explodes” between the ages of two and five. However the same should not be expected in the case of the saame should not be expected in the case of the second language. Do not expect a child’s L2 vocabulary development to match their L1 vocabulary” (Nunan, 2011 : chapter 8)

From the quotation above, we as a teacher should be able to make the children get the spirit in learning foreign language vocabulary, so they want to study hard. In addition to providing motivation, we as teachers must also have a special way to deal with children who are less enthusiastic or not in the learning process. The teacher must be able to get inovation, to find the methods or techniques that are suitable to teach and able to improve students’ knowledge. For example, teaching vocabulary using picture or flash card. Picture is a thing that can make us understand about something. We can use it as media in learning English. We can find pictures from books or the internet. There are many kinds of pictures which can help the teachers to teach vocabulary in the learning process. It is very interesting because teacher and student will gets benefit from that method. Beside that, the student will enjoy in the learning process. Sometimes they are difficult to study, but they want to playing and playing. As a teacher, we must able to control and get inovation how to handle this condition.
Beside that, the teacher can use media to teach English, especially vocabulary. In vocabulary, teacher can teach about everithing arround us to improve the student’s vocabularies. For example, we teach vocabolary about parts of house using picture.
The purpose of this paper are the student will easy to understand, get more knowledge, get spirit or motivation to study English well soon, and they will enjoy in learning process. For the teacher, they can explore their creations or inovations to make or to found media in teaching English especially in teaching vocabulary so that students more enjoy and easy to teach in learning process.
In this paper, the writer will explain teaching vocabulary using pictures. There are two problems of identification that will discuss in this paper. The first, what are the technique for teaching vocabulary ?, the second, what is picture as media in teaching vocabulary ?, and the third, what are the principles of picture as teaching media ?.

In learning process, especially in language learning there are many methods and techniques that are more effective and suitable to apply or used by the teachers to teaching language. The teachers should be transfer the materials with the good ways, methods, and techniques so that the students are able to understand and to improve their ability in language learning, especially in foreign language learning. There are three formulation of the problems :
A.                What are the technique for teaching vocabulary ?
Teaching is a process to transfer the knowledge and the materials to the students by using some methods that are suitable with the matter in the learning process. Beside that, in using of the method, the teacher should know what the material and about the condition of the students itself.
“As a teacher of language, you have thoughts about your subject matter, what language is, what culture is, and about your students, who they are as learners, and what you can do to help your students learn. It is very important for you to become aware of the thoughts that guide your actions in the classroom”.(Diane Larsen and Freeman, 2000 : 1)

From the quotation above, it means that we as a teacher should know the materials that will be teach and the condition of students who are the learners. After we know what will be teach and who they are the learners, in learning process we should have to choose or apply some methods. The method that we choose should suitable with the material or subject that will be teach to the students. To know the characteristics of the students, the condition of the students, and the necessary of the students are the important point that the teacher should know about that before teach in the class.
In this case, teaching vocabulary using pictures will make the students easily to understand.“ Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Although work on all four skills occurs from the start, oral communication is seen as basic.” (Diane Larsen and Freeman, 2000 : 29). From that quotation, it means that the vocabulary is the main basic of the language that mastery by the students to improve their skills (such as four skills : speaking, reading, listening, and writing), without vocabulary, the student cannot mastery of that four skills anymore. It is because, vocabulary is provide all of the words that will be used by the people to get the communicate with the other. So, vocabulary is important for the students who are the beginner in learning language, especially in foreign language learning.
There are many kinds of vocabularies such as vocabulary of transportations, colours, shapes, vegetables, animals, fruits, and others. In teaching vocabulary especially for the children, we as a teacher should have to choose the methods or the techniques that are suitable with the materials, so that students will enjoy and easily to understand the subject that will be teach. For example, teaching vocabulary using pictures as media. “Picture and pictures stories : many communication activities can be stimulated through the use of pictures (e. g. Spot the differences, memory test, sequencing pictures to tell a story).” (Nunan, 2004 : 58). It means that the picture will makes the students easily to remember and to understand the vocabulary.
“Teachers who use the Direct Method believe students need to associate meaning and the target language directly. In order to do this, when the teacher introduces a new target language word or phrase, he demonstrates its meaning through the use of realia, pictures, or pantomime : he never translates it into the students’ native language.”  (Diane Larsen and Freeman, 2000 : 29).

Teaching vocabulary using pictures will make students easy to understand because they know directly the things or subject, for example there is a car. The teacher show the picture of car. This way will make students easy to remember what they learn about. Teaching vocabulary using pictures is the branch of Direct Method.
“As with the Grammar Translation Method, the Direct Method is not new. Its principles have been applied by language teachers for many years. Most recently, it was revived as a method when the goal of instruction bacem learning how to use a foreign language to communicate. Since the Grammar Translation Method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively, The Direct Method became popular. The Direct Method has one very basic rule : No translation is allowed. In fact, the Direct Method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids, with no recourse to the students’ native language.” (Diller : 1978, cited in Larsen, 2000 : 23)

Teaching vocabulary using picture as media is the branch of the Direct Method. It is because teaching using picture as media is explain about something to the students that showing the picture as the meaning of something without translation. In this term, when the teacher will introduce the ne words, the teacher should not translate the meaning of word, but the teacher should use the other ways, such as show the real things, describe the things, show the pictures, show use the gesture, and the other.

B.                 What is picture as media in teaching vocabulary ?
According to Hornby (2007 : 1138), picture is a descriptions that gives you an idea in your mind of what something is like. It means that using picture will make the children  easier to remember and understand the new vocabulary that they get.
Media is a tool that can be used to show something or objects to makes the students become easily to know and to understand what the object means. In this case, there is a picture as media in teaching vocabulary. According to Hornby (2007 : 953 ) media is the main ways that large numbers of people receive information and entertainment, that is television, radio, newspaper, and the internet : the news/ broadcasting/ national media. The trial was fully reported in the media. The media was/ were acused of influencing the final decision.
“Yang dimaksud dengan learning facilities adalah fasilitas atau perlengkapan belajar. Pada CLA, learning facilities anak dianggap bagus karena semua yang ada pada lingkungan rumah, keluarga, masyarakat dan wilayah menjadi pendukung bagi suksesnya CLA. Anak belajar bahasa ibu dengan sistem “langsung praktik” baik secara aktif (berbicara dan menulis) maupun pasif (mendengar dan membaca). Pada waktu anak belajar bahasa asing, seperti Inggris, mereka tidak menjumpai learning facilities secara lengkap. Boleh dikatakan, “learning facilities for English learning in most schools in Indonesia is limited” (fasilitas belajar bahasa Inggris di hampir seluruh sekolah di Indonesia terbatas). Memang ada satu atau dua sekolah di kota yang mempunyai lab bahasa, namun apabila diangket secara jujur para siswa akan tetap mengatakan bahwa fasilitas mereka untuk belajar Bahasa inggris di sekolah masih terbatas.” (Subhan, 2003 : 31)

The quotation above means that the learning facilities or media is very importan int learning process, especially in foreign language learning for the students. Without the media in the learning process, it is very difficult for teacher to explain or to describe something so that it makes the students able to understand what the material about. Thus, the existence of a media or learnng facility in learning is very important to support the learning process at school, so that later we will produce superior seeds and achievers achieve future goals and aspirations as high as possible.
The picture is one of the element in media which is very important. There are several media that can be used in teaching a new vocabulary to students. Beside that, there is to describe the word in question in a way to telling of the story, describe, demonstrate the style using the gesture of body, showing the real object or the real things, showing the picture, and the last one is translating. The picture is considered as an easy way to teach vocabulary to students who are in their infancy at the beginner level to learn about English. By looking at the picture, the students will be easily aroused to remember the pictures that shown to them. At this time, the students’ brain development is the still that is very good enough, so it must be utilized to the maximum in learning vocabulary, especially in learning the foreign language.
The picture shown by the teacher will be very wearing on a child, because of something they perceive will first impression on their minds forever, so when we introduce a new picture image as a new vocabulary, we also have to be careful especially in pronunciation.
So, the picture as media in teaching vocabulary is a tool that used to give an explanation, understanding, or understanding of an object in the mastery of vocabulary in foreign language learning, especially for the students in beginners. The picture will greatly help the students to understand directly about the meaning of the words from a picture, so they will be easier to learn and easier to remember new vocabulary that they have mastered to support the mastery of foreign language skill in the learning process.
C.                 What are the principles of picture as teaching media ?
 In teaching vocabulary using pictures, there are some principles in choosing a picture. in selecting the first image that we consider is to choose the picture that should be clear. The clearly shows the object in question shall mean appropriately and in accordance with reality, for example, when we introduce the vocabulary of the glass, the image must also be shown images glasses, do not have showed dishes, spoons, and others. The second is that it can be understood. It means that the picture should in the  large sizes so that all students can see clearly.
“In presenting the material using the picture, you can choose flash cards. You can have word flashcards matching the picture flashcards, thus allowing you to teach the whole word and develop reading and writing skills. Word flashcards should never be used to introduce a word for the first time. Always use the picture flashcards first and revise the vocabulary orally.” (http://gibaud.pagesperso-orange.fr/tetyc/practic/flashcards.htm) accessed on 21 January 2012, at 23: 45
Flashcard is picture of a medium sized paper on a particular theme that is used to teach new vocabulary to the students. For example, a theme that will be taught are fruits, so we have to prepare the picture of fruits such as mango, bananas, orange, apple, melon, strawberry, papaya, grape, and other.
In using the flashcard we also have to mastery in the technique or the way how to use the flashcard, so that we can easily use the flashcards in the classroom when teaching and learning process is ongoing. With this technique, we can set the time to the maximum, so that the goals or the targets that will be achieved can be met and students can also understand the material that we teach about.
So, the picture of good will from greatly affect students in learning foreign languages, so the teacher must choose the picture that really fit and proper, so that the children more quickly and easily to capture the foreign language learning materials.

From the discussion above, the writer conclude that there are several points in the paper entitle “Teaching Vocabulary Using Pictures” :
1.                   The technique in teaching vocabulary is one of the means used to teach new vocabulary to the beginner students. In presenting the material and the media must use the appropriate manner, so that the students would be easier to understand and to capture new vocabulary in the learning process, especially foreign language vocabulary. By using the right way and a clear media, it will makes more easily to capture the materials and more enthusiastic in learning foreign language for the students.
2.                     In teaching vocabulary, there are several methods and several of the media. There is the picture as media in teaching vocabulary. Picture is something that has an image of an object. It is will help the teacher to explain new foreign words. Beside that, it will makes the students easier to understand the new foreign words or vocabulary. Picture will help to get the students’ understanding about new vocabulary. It is because the students really like something with a picture and bright of the color, so the picture will help the students to makes more easily in the learning. So, on every matter that will be teach, we should prepare the methods, techniques, methods, and media that can support the learning process, especially the process of learning a foreign language.

3.                    In using media images, we as teachers must also consider several issues related to the image. Beside  the characteristics of the picture itself. The picture that should be used as a media in learning a foreign language must be clear pictures, pictures that look similar to the original form, the picture that is not deceptive, so that students will immediately understand and know whether the intended the pictures.

Hornby, A. S. 2007. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. New York : Oxford University Press.
Larsen, Diane. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Washington, D. C. : Oxford University Press.
Nunan, David. 1992. Collaborative Language Learning and Teaching. New York : Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, David. 2004. Task-Based Language Teaching. New York : Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, David. 2011. Teaching English to Young Learners. Anaheim : Anaheim University Press.
Subhan, Bustami. 2003. Children Language Acquisition and English Languae Teaching. Yogyakarta : Debut Press.

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